Nearly seven years after the Haitian earthquake that killed more than 200,000, Hurricane Matthew has now claimed many hundreds more, caused immense devastation, crop loss and an urgent need for assistance in medical relief, potable water, food and shelter. While the hurricane is a tragic reminder of the need for long-term sustainable development to build resilience in local communities and guard against the onslaught of global climate change, our most immediate attention needs to focus on humanitarian relief.
Five Lessons for Donors
Following major disasters, American families contribute many millions of dollars to relief agencies. Here is a distillation of lessons learned which may serve as a guide for contributing.
- Send cash. In disasters of this magnitude, every seaport and airport in the region will quickly be jammed with relief supplies, many of them of marginal value at best. The international airport in Haiti will soon be nearly paralyzed with incoming relief. Cash is needed by relief agencies to purchase supplies as locally as possible. They do this to bolster local economies rather than hurt them with imported goods. Where supplies are not available (e.g. medicines), they are purchased abroad and flown in by the military or at significant expense. Your sending clothing, baby bottles, food, water, building materials etc. at this time would not be useful. At worst, it will block critical supplies that cannot be procured locally.
- Contribute for reconstruction and development, not just relief. The emergency period finding survivors and stabilizing water and food supplies, will be over in a matter of weeks. Many of these needs are being met by international organizations, donor countries, and by thousands of local volunteers. While the emergency needs are great, even greater, far greater, will be the need for funds with which to help rebuild communities and livelihoods. Unfortunately, many relief agencies that flood into countries after major disasters do not stay beyond the emergency period. This is why it is important to contribute to agencies that will be there for the long term and to earmark funds for reconstruction and development in the affected communities. Some of the largest relief agencies receive many millions of dollars more than their in-country emergency program can absorb. Surplus funds should be invested in long-term rehabilitation and development.
- Select agencies that know the countries. Many relief agencies that issue appeals to their constituencies or advertise for contributions have never set foot in Haiti. Unless they are very specialized agencies (e.g. Doctors Without Borders), many will waste time and money trying to figure out how to operate. The best chance to help is to support those organizations with local offices already operational or established ties to local and competent partner organizations.
- Consider local organizations in the affected country. Most Americans will prefer to contribute to known US or European organizations, often within their faith communities or nationally recognized. That is fine. If you wish, you can contribute directly to local organizations in the countries affected. The difficulty is knowing which organizations are reliable and efficiently getting the money to them. Most do not have Internet sites set up for contributions like the major US and European agencies. Sending checks or wiring funds is unreliable at this time. When you can contribute directly to reputable local organizations, the money may be well utilized though you will not get a US tax deduction unless they have a US-based 501(c)(3) non-profit channel registered with the U.S. Internal Revenue Service. Also, I do not recommend contributing directly to the appeals of foreign governments. Even where there is no question as to their dedication to the relief of suffering in emergencies, non-governmental, non-political organizations will be better stewards of funds for long term development.
- Most importantly, contribute to organizations that aim to lessen vulnerability, not just helping to rebuild poverty. In most disasters in developing nations, those most affected and who have the longest and most difficult recovery are poor people living in marginal communities. It is not enough to help people rebuild shanties. Every “natural” disaster is also an opportunity to help communities lessen their vulnerability. The most progressive international relief agencies (e.g. Oxfam, American Friends Service Committee, America Jewish World Service, Catholic Relief Services, Mennonite Central Committee, to name a few) know the conditions that bred such vulnerability and know that they must work with local government and communities to change those conditions.
At the end of this letter is a short list of agencies that I trust. This list is not meant to be exhaustive and represents but a few organizations whose work I have admired in the field of relief and development.
Five Questions to Ask Before you Give
The American public is searching for ways to help relieve the suffering of those affected by disasters. Unfortunately charitable organizations are often not prepared to make the most of your money. Here are Center for Global Development and Sustainability’s five simple questions to ask any aid organization before you give.
- Has the organization worked in the affected country before? Hundreds of organizations in the US collect funds after major disasters. Many do not have the on-the-ground experience that is critical for timely and wise utilization of the funds. Many show up in devastated nations and are not familiar with local organizations, customs, language or terrain. They will flounder. The best organizations to contribute to are those which were operational in the country before the disaster. An exception to this rule should be allowed for specialized organizations like Doctors Without Borders that have vast global experience and capacity for immediate impact.
- Will the organization merely contribute your funds to another aid group? Constituencies often contribute funds through their own charities which collect and transfer the funds to operational organizations. If you use such channels, be sure that no or very low overheads are deducted for such pass-through grants. Overheads are legitimate when an organization is directly involved in fielding staff or materials.
- Will the organization stay in the affected country after the emergency period? Believe it or not, most private aid organizations leave about the same time the cameras do. The emergency period is short, but the period for reconstruction is very long and much more costly. It is often years before people made homeless by disasters are housed decently and their communities and livelihoods made whole again.
- What experience does your organization have in development? Many organizations can provide building materials. But the aim is not to rebuild poverty, but to work with local communities to attain a higher standard of living. Expatriate organizations need to be able to work with local government and communities alike, speak their languages, understand their cultures, and patiently help them plan for sustainable development. The best organizations to which to contribute are those with an understanding of the causes of vulnerability and poverty.
- Will your organization permit you to earmark your contribution? No matter how small your contribution may be, it is important that you earmark it for long-term development in the affected country. Despite what they say now about the need, the capacity of local institutions to absorb all aid funds quickly is quite limited. Earmarking encourages the aid organization to begin now to make long-range plans. It also lets the organization know that you prefer that your funds are wisely spent over a longer period than hastily spent on efforts that may be duplicating those of others.
The University Advisory Council has adopted a student-led resolution to change the name of Columbus Day to Indigenous Peoples’ Day on the academic calendar. The renaming was supported by faculty at the October 7 Faculty Meeting, after the Faculty Senate voted to recommend the resolution.
Indigenous Peoples’ Day is celebrated by a growing number of municipalities and universities across the United States. Proponents of the holiday have urged its adoption to recognize the millions of Native Americans who already lived in the Americas when Columbus arrived, instead of celebrating the explorer, whose arrival led to centuries of oppression for native people.
Former Brandeis University Student Union Senator-at-Large Lorenzo Finamore ’18 submitted the resolution, which was passed by the Student Union on March 21, 2016.
“The legacy of Christopher Columbus is one of imperialism, genocide, torture, enslavement and long-term systematic injustices which conflict with Brandeis University’s core principles of social justice,” the resolution reads. “The Brandeis University campus would benefit from engaging in a celebration of Indigenous Peoples’ culture and history.”
The University Advisory Council unanimously approved the resolution on September 22, 2016 upon receiving the resolution from the Student Union. In the interest of enabling faculty to be heard on the proposal, the UAC made its vote contingent on the support of the faculty at the October 7 meeting.According to the university registrar, the name change will be made immediately on the academic calendar.
Brandeis will celebrate the opening of the collection of personal papers, recordings and photographs of late comedian and social critic Lenny Bruce with a symposium titled “Comedy and the Constitution: the Legacy of Lenny Bruce,” on Oct. 27 and 28.
The two-day symposium will include a keynote speech by Brandeis alumna and former trustee Christie Hefner '74, and a conversation with Lenny Bruce’s daughter, Kitty Bruce. Hefner is trustee of the Hugh M. Hefner Foundation, whose generous gift made it possible for Brandeis to acquire the papers, which Kitty Bruce had maintained for decades since her father’s death 50 years ago.
Lenny Bruce was a groundbreaking comedian and satirist in the late 1950s and early 1960s who eschewed the bland mainstream humor of the time to push the envelope on language and social issues. He was charged with obscenity in multiple cities and was convicted in New York. Having faced years of legal persecution around his act, he died of a drug overdose on Aug. 3, 1966, at age 40, shortly before the appeal of his conviction; he was pardoned posthumously in 2003. Numerous comedians who would follow him cite Lenny Bruce as an inspiration in their own work.
“I am very grateful and relieved that Brandeis University has the archive. With Brandeis’s emphasis on social justice, it is the right place to ensure my father’s documents and artifacts are protected and made available for everybody,” said Kitty Bruce. “Students, free speech advocates, law students, scholars, fans of Lenny Bruce old and young can now read and listen to these materials and remember his legacy for years to come.”
The symposium features a number of panels about Lenny Bruce’s legacy in comedy, first amendment law, and Jewish humor. Sessions include “Censorship and the Law,” “Jewish Humor and the Holocaust,” and “The Language of Comedy.” Martin Garbus, one of the attorneys who represented Bruce in the New York trial, will speak as part of one panel. Key pieces of the collection – some of which have never been seen before by the general public will be on display in the exhibit area in the Archives & Special Collections Department in Goldfarb Library through mid-2017. Those wishing to attend the symposium should register on the conference website. Brandeis students may apply for free admission to the conference.
Hugh Hefner, the founder of Playboy, was a strong supporter of Lenny Bruce in his career and legal battles. Christie Hefner said her father’s history with Lenny Bruce made it fitting for the Hugh M. Hefner Foundation to sponsor the acquisition of his papers by Brandeis, enabling future generations to learn about Bruce’s legacy.
“Lenny Bruce’s legacy is so important, not only for his enduring contributions to American comedy, but because he endured persecution and prosecution for exercising his right to free expression,” said Christie Hefner, who is the former C.E.O. and Chairman of Playboy Enterprises. “My father was a strong supporter of Lenny Bruce’s talent and his first-amendment rights. I’m very proud that the Hugh M. Hefner Foundation is supporting this symposium, and making it possible for scholars and students to study Lenny Bruce’s history and its relevance and resonance today.”
“We are deeply grateful to the Hugh M. Hefner Foundation and to Kitty Bruce for entrusting Brandeis with this incredible collection, which will give researchers new insight into one of the most fascinating and controversial figures in American pop culture of the mid-20th century,” said Steve Whitfield, the Max Richter Professor of American Civilization. “We believe this symposium and the many scholars who will present their own work is a fitting way to open this never-before-seen collection to the world.”
The Brandeis University Rape Crisis Center (RCC) has developed a new tool for helping survivors of sexual assault connect with the right resources and receive the assistance they need.
Using the survey software Qualtrics, Ava Blustein ’15 and Evelyn Milford ’16, both of whom are former RCC peer advocates, created an online, step-by-step guide for survivors to get immediate help.
Milford said they created the Interactive Resources guide “so everyone would have more access to information that will connect them with reliable resources for reporting, counseling and receiving medical help.”
The Interactive Resource Guide is accessible via the RCC website and contains six parts: assessing immediate danger, medical attention, accompaniment, counseling, accommodations and reporting.
Within each section, the user answers multiple-choice questions regarding their health and safety. The guide then directs users to resources that are designed to help them based on their responses.
For example, the guide can instantly connect survivors with Brandeis Public Safety, the RCC or another local counseling center as well as give instruction on where to go to receive emergency contraception or testing for sexually transmitted infections.
Blustein and Milford also stressed that the guide is completely anonymous and does not store data or private information.
“We wanted to break down barriers to reporting and accessing counseling,” Blustein said. “This gives people more information to make the right decision.”
The two alumnae are hopeful that RCC will continue to improve the guide, particularly when it comes to translating their creation into other languages to help Brandeis’ international community.“We often hear from students that they’re not necessarily aware of all the resources available to them,” said Sheila McMahon, the sexual assault services and prevention director. “This tool is brilliant because it allows them connect with these resources in private and come to us anytime for help.”
U.S. News & World Report has again named Brandeis University as one of the top national universities in the United States in its 2017 Best Colleges guide.
Brandeis ranks 34th nationally, remaining in the same spot as last year.
Brandeis also earned high national scores for being a best value school, 30th overall, and its first-year retention rate, 36th, which is up from 42nd last year.
The 2017 edition includes data on nearly 1,800 colleges and universities, including statistics on borrowing, costs and graduation rates. U.S. News developed the rankings to measure the strength of the academic programs at undergraduate institutions, with eligible schools ranked on up to 15 measures of academic excellence.
Brandeis has earned a ranking among the top 35 national universities since 1996.
Recipients of the 2016 Provost Research Awards will be celebrated and their research will be showcased in an event Sept. 15.
The Provost’s Innovations in Research Grants were launched in the spring of 2015 to support and enhance teaching and research excellence. Research award recipients spent the past year engaged in early stage research, interdisciplinary research, and projects that had the potential of attracting future funding from outside sources. Thursday's event, "Provost Research Awards: A Celebration of Scholarly Inquiry," will feature posters, videos, demonstrations, and short "lightning talks" from recipients. It will be held in the International Lounge in Usdan Student Center from 1 p.m. to 4 p.m.
Here is a look at the award recipients who are presenting and their research:
Andrea Acevedo, Heller School
"Inequalities in Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment"
Findings from recent studies show that minority adolescents in need of treatment for substance use disorders are less likely to access treatment than White adolescents, and those who do access treatment are less likely to complete it. This qualitative study obtains treatment providers perspectives on factors that may be underlying these disparities and what can be done to address them. For this study, I interview 8-10 adolescent substance abuse treatment program providers in Massachusetts.
Casey Wade, Chemistry
"Designing chemically and thermally stable MOFs as supports for heterogeneous catalysis"
Catalyst design will play an important role in developing renewable energy sources and in future drug development. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are an emerging class of porous materials that offer opportunity for the design of versatile heterogeneous catalysts. One challenge associated with implementing these materials is maintaining the porous framework under harsh catalytic conditions. This project has been focused on developing chemically and thermally robust MOFs as supports for heterogeneous catalysis. We have established procedures for the postsynthetic modification of zirconium-based MOFs with phosphine donor groups. Phosphines are ubiquitous as ligands in homogeneous transition metal catalysis, and our new phosphine-containing MOFs will serve as a versatile heterogeneous platform for catalytic studies. We have also investigated the synthesis of MOFs containing functionalized pyrazolate linkers. Despite showing excellent thermal and chemical stability, pyrazolate-based MOFs have been less studied than materials containing other types of organic linkers. Our results in this area have paved the way for postsynthetic modification and catalytic studies.
Christine Thomas, Chemistry
"Bimetallic Complexes as Single Molecule Magnets"
It has recently become apparent that some molecules have high barriers to magnetic relaxation, allowing them to retain their magnetization after removal of an applied field. As a result of the smaller size of these "single-molecule magnets" (SMMs) compared to bulk magnetic materials, these compounds have exciting potential applications in high density information storage and quantum computing. We evaluate the magnetic behavior of bimetallic iron and cobalt complexes as possible SMMs.
In this relatively new research area, current challenges include fast relaxation times and the low temperatures required to observe SMM behavior (< 10 K). To improve upon the state-of-the-art, higher relaxation barriers are required, which will be achieved by maximizing two parameters: spin (# of unpaired electrons) and zero-field splitting. Our hypothesis is that bimetallic complexes of iron and/or cobalt will increase both of these parameters and lead to more practical SMMs. We use a technique called SQUID magnetometry to evaluate the magnetic properties of a series of bimetallic complexes in search of SMM behavior.
ChaeRan Freeze, Near Eastern and Judaic Studies
"An Eye for an Eye: Jewish Terrorism and Romance in the Russian Socialist Revolutionary Movement"
This project explores Jewish vengeance and violence through their roles in the leadership and terrorist Combat Organization of the Russian Socialist Revolutionary Party in the early twentieth century. Based on archival sources, it examines motivations for joining the party and participating in terrorism, relationships with non-Jewish revolutionaries (intense friendships and romances), state violence (imprisonment, and exile), betrayal and spies, and narratives of family members left behind.
Charles Golden, Anthropology
"Preliminary Investigations of the Ancient Maya Capital of Sak T'zi'"
In June 2014, a landowner took my colleagues and me to his farm in the Santo Domingo valley, Chiapas, Mexico where there is an undocumented Classic period (AD 250 – 900) Maya capital city with numerous inscribed stone monuments. From 6/1 to 6/30/15 I conducted research as local permissions allowed. There are four intended outcomes: 1) long-term working relationships with landowners in the Santo Domingo valley, 2) a photographic catalog of monuments on-site and in the possession of the site's landowner, 3) a map of architectural remains at the site, and 4) photographic and drawn documentation of architectural construction sequences visible in looters' trenches.
Cynthia Cohen, Program in Peacebuilding and the Arts
"Social Transformation through the Arts: Interdisciplinary and Cross-cultural Perspectives"
This project addresses why and how the arts contribute to social transformation. Questions include: How can evaluation be designed to improve contributions of the arts and culture to community resilience? How can knowledge from sources as diverse as neuroscience and African traditional cultures advance inclusive and effective practice? My assistant, David Briand, and I, will share a pilot episode of a podcast series entitled Arts for Life: African Voices.
Dan Oprian, Biochemistry
"Optogenetic Tools for Control of Cyclic Nucleotides in the CNS"
The principle of optogenetic control was first established in pioneering studies by Gero Miesenöck, who introduced a visual pigment from the fly retina into other neurons of the central nervous system and showed that he could control the behavior of the animals remotely by exposing the modified neurons to light. This spatial/temporal control of behavior in an intact animal was revolutionary but did not catch on widely because of the complexity of the visual pigment signaling pathway required for the photoreceptive protein in target neurons. Optogentics underwent explosive growth following the discovery of a light-gated ion channel protein, channelrhodopsin, from the phototactic algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Once expressed in the plasma membrane of target neuron, channelrhodopsin can control the electrical activities of the cells directly through light-dependent opening and closing of the ion-conducting pore of the protein.
More recently, Avelar et al. (2014) published a striking paper in which they identified a new protein (rho-GC) from the phototactic fungus Blastocladiella emersonii. Rho-GC is a unique fusion protein in which a microbial rhodopsin domain, similar to that found in channelrhodopsin, is fused to a guanylyl cyclase domain to form a light-activated enzyme controlling the synthesis of the important signaling molecule cGMP. My laboratory obtained the gene for rho-GC as well as the gene for a rhodopsin-cGMP phosphodiesterase fusion protein identified through a data mining trail, and began experiments to heterologously express the proteins for biochemical characterization in vitro. We have now successfully expressed the proteins in a human embryonic kidney cell line and have been able to purify both to homogeneity. Our goal now is to characterize the proteins with the intent of using them in optogenetics experiments in collaboration with the laboratories of Piali Sengupta and Leslie Griffith here at Brandeis.
Debarshi K. Nandy, International Business School
Cracking the Economics of Fracking
Fracking is a drilling technique that has led to a significant increase in US oil and gas production since 2003. However, in addition to environmental concerns, questions have recently been raised regarding the geologic effects of fracking which may lead to increased incidence of future earthquakes. Thus, to properly evaluate the current economic value added for fracking we account for the present value of these long term costs and explore regulation and policy that minimizes such costs.
We also estimate the positive effects on the local economy and employment due to fracking, using census data. The net present value of such activities is estimated. Given that the large negative effects of fracking on local economic activities may only show up decades later as the magnitudes of earthquakes gradually increase, it is important to try and quantify these now so as to facilitate regulation and policy.
Gregory Childs, History
"‘A Series of Noteworthy Things': Translating a Journal Confiscated"
Our project is a translation of a journal that was confiscated from the leader of a plot to rebel against colonialism, slavery, and racism in 1798 Brazil. The journal contained poetry and philosophical reflections and the rebellious plot, known as the Tailor's Conspiracy, is regarded by Brazilian historians as one of the earliest movements for national independence. Our translation thus contributes to nineteenth century Latin American history and literature.
Ilana Szobel, Near Eastern and Judaic Studies
"Flesh of My Flesh: Sexual Violence in Hebrew Literature and Israeli Culture"
This book project will be the first comprehensive study of the literary history of sexual assault in Hebrew literature and Israeli culture. It situates the rhetoric of gender-based aggression in the Jewish world of the twentieth century within the context of gender, disability, ethnicity, race, Zionism, and national identity. Such analysis uncovers the complex ideologies, anxieties, and bias entwined in the constructions of Hebrew cultural imagination.
Jane Ebert, International Business School
"Effects of schedule predictability and interruption on exercise intentions
Health interventions are difficult for working midlife adults, who experience decreased well- being alongside substantial responsibilities and role conflict. We identify times that enhance intervention effectiveness, by: comparing the impact on exercise intentions and actions, in midlife working parents of school children, of an experimental manipulation (making schedule predictability OR interruptions salient), applied at a time followed by an interrupted OR an uninterrupted school schedule. An important benefit of our research would be tailoring intervention timing to many individuals at once, rather than one individual at a time.
Janet Boguslaw, Heller School
"Outsourced at Home: The impacts for Job Quality, Public Resources"
In 2009, approximately 90 female immigrant workers were unexpectedly fired from their housekeeping positions at three Boston area Hyatt Hotels; they were replaced by contract workers hired to do the same jobs for less money, no benefits, and in poorer working conditions. Interviews with fired Hyatt workers will build understanding of the impacts of domestic outsourcing—as contrasted to offshore outsourcing—on job quality and benefits, public resources, family mobility and inequality.
This project improves understanding of labor market impact and the trend towards fragmented and fissured work, by examining how displacement affects family well-being (assets and wealth, socio-economic status, work quality, personal and institutional networks) and shifts costs between sectors—from private to public—impacting the broader society.
Jon A. Chilingerian, Heller School
"Being Better Than Average is Not Good Enough: Benchmarking Physician and Hospital Quality and Efficiency"
The current economic and political environment is increasingly focused on containing the rising costs of health care. At the state level, the Commonwealth in Massachusetts passed a law in 2012 establishing a formal commission to set annual benchmarks on health care cost growth that are tied to the state’s overall economic trends, and to monitor progress in achieving these targets. Moreover, at the Federal level, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) have initiated several pilot programs around new payment and delivery models, including accountable care organizations and bundled payments, aimed at reducing the amount paid for health services while improving the quality of care. In the private sector, many private insurance companies have developed similar initiatives.
We believe, however, that many of the current measures of efficiency and quality available to hospitals are ill equipped for these purposes. The statistical and parametric-based approaches underlying most current measures of efficiency and quality rely on simple averages to convey information about relative performance. Average performance, however, may not correlate with best performance.
Kristin Parker, Rose Art Museum
"Cultural First Aid"
We’ve all heard of the extensive and deliberate destruction of heritage by Daesh (ISIS). This tactic, the erasure of an enemy via the elimination of its culture, is not new - indeed it has a long history. To annihilate connections to history has always been one of the most effective ways to disorient, demoralize and finally suppress a people.
In the face of this age-old but expanding and shape-shifting threat, we must assert our right to access and affirm cultural heritage, wherever it may be. The disappearance of identity; the insidious violence of gentrification; the exacerbating effects of climate change; the volatility of conflict zones - all of these issues are entwined, one impacting the other.
My research, through theoretical and practical work, allowed me to hone in on the following questions. What does cultural first aid entail? Is it possible to safeguard cultural heritage while humanitarian aid and security operations are underway? How can heritage professionals ensure that cultural recovery becomes a force for stabilization and building back better?
Karen V. Hansen, Sociology
"Mentoring for Leadership: Teachers and Students at a Working-Class High School"
This project focuses on a working-class, racially mixed high school that overcame a history of racial conflict through the strategic efforts of educators and students. It investigates race and class tensions from 1964-1976. It inquires about the mix of resources, vision, commitment, and creativity that enabled the school community to quell violent outbreaks, re-frame misundertandings, foster student leadership, create social and economic opportunities, and dialogue across difference.
Kerry A. Chase, Politics; International and Global Studies
"Regulating Trade in Products that Afflict, Harm, or Kill People"
International trade is freer than ever before, easing commerce in products with the potential to injure, sicken, or even kill. Global regulation seeks to control potentially harmful trade on a worldwide scale to alleviate human suffering. Yet this emerging trend remains uneven. Why has global regulation been realized—in some areas where trade endangers lives—but not in others? Why have certain countries committed to global regulation and adhered to these commitments, while others have not?
Maureen Stewart, Heller School
"Rethinking mental health care management from a population perspective"
The quality of behavioral health care has substantial room for improvement. Systems level care management may be one way to improve quality. Recently, a large multi-specialty group practice implemented a novel population management mental health care model. The staggered implementation of the care management model (CMM) offers researchers the opportunity to take advantage of a resulting natural experiment and examine the impact of the CMM on behavioral health outcomes and downstream medical costs. This project aims to explore the implementation challenges of this new care model, establish baseline data and develop hypotheses to include in a future grant proposal.
Nancy J Scott, Fine Arts; Romance Studies
"Collecting J.M.W. Turner in America: Auctions and Audiences"
My project is to write a book on Turner's Slave Ship, in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, and to demonstrate its powerful legacy for the collecting of Turner’s work by later American generations. My project depends on auction catalogue data, the detail of provenance histories of specific Turner paintings, and the collectors' archives of Turner works that entered American collections. This research in archives, museums, and libraries allows a closer assessment of the evidence of art market and public reception to Turner’s work among American collectors.
Pu Wang, German, Russian and Asian Languages and Literature; East Asian Studies
“Marx Enters the Temple of Confucius: Literary Representations of National Antiquity in Revolutionary China”
This project examines the often-overlooked literary representations of ancient Chinese history in revolutionary China. The long Chinese Revolution is famous for its anti-traditional tendency, but during this supposedly anti-historical era, many important modern Chinese writers were actually obsessed with ancient Chinese history in their writings. My project is a comprehensive study of this significant yet forgotten convergence of literary modernity and national antiquity.
Raphael Schoenle, Economics
"Can Subjective Life Expectancies Explain Life-Cycle Puzzles?"
Subjective mortality beliefs influence individual discount rates, affecting savings rates pre- and post-retirement. New survey evidence indicates that the salience of cohort-specific causes-of- death causes younger individuals to overestimate mortality, and elderly individuals to overestimate survival probabilities. These distorted mortality beliefs correlate with savings behavior, even controlling for cognitive and socioeconomic factors. We embed an estimated survival belief function into a canonical life-cycle model. Relative to a benchmark model using actuarial transition probabilities, the young under-save (31% lower retirement savings), and retirees draw down their assets more slowly (14% lower retirement consumption), reconciling contradictory savings puzzles at opposite ends of the life-cycle.
Sara Shostak, Sociology, Health: Science, Society and Policy; Heller, and Environmental Studies
"Developing Outcome Measures for Urban Agriculture in MA"
There is a lack of data on the economic, environmental, social, and health consequences of urban farming and gardening in MA. Using in-depth interviews with stakeholders—including farmers/gardeners, funders, and city and state policy makers—this project assesses how urban agriculture groups in MA define their goals and objectives, what metrics they currently use, and what additional measurement strategies would be helpful and feasible for them.
Stephen D. Van Hooser, Biology
"Dense electrode arrays for studying neural networks"
A major goal of neuroscience is to understand how the billions of neurons in the brain work together in networks to mediate perception and behavior. Over the past 100 years, most studies have examined cells one at a time. Recently, due to advances in 3-D printing and carbon fibers, a small focused lab could now build arrays with 100-200 fibers that can sample the activity of hundreds of nearby neurons in a single network, shedding considerable light on the operating principles of these networks.
Sophia A. Malamud, Language and Linguistics; Anthropology; Computer Science
"Developing a community resource: Corpus of Bilingual Russian Child Speech (BiRCh)"
The purpose of this project is to create an online, freely available database of language produced by children acquiring Russian in monolingual and bilingual contexts. Though the language of immigrant communities is often stigmatized and deprecated (even by its speakers), it is of central importance to the cultural identity and practices of these communities, and its study is crucial to understanding the fundamental properties of linguistic knowledge, language acquisition and maintenance.
So far, we have collected over 115 hours of recording; we fully transcribed, checked, annotated for disfluencies, and pseudonymised an estimated 35,000 words. These transcripts are being used for annotation experiments, to develop guidelines for parsing – adding grammatical information to – this data.
Our corpus will enable replicable results, statistical comparisons between émigré adults, heritage children, and monolingual children and adults, and investigations of frequency effects, allowing a new level of insight into grammar development in heritage and émigré speakers and thereby into the fundamental properties of language knowledge, acquisition, and attrition. It will also supply the necessary information for educators developing language materials for heritage learners, for parents raising bilingual children, and for policy makers drafting appropriate rules and procedures.
Tatjana Meschede, Heller School
“Homeless Families: Can Targeted Workforce Development Improve Employment and Housing Outcomes?”
With family homelessness on the rise, the need for effective interventions is pressing. Rigorous research on this transient population is rare and challenging but necessary to provide evidence for best practices. This research project builds on data collected from a current evaluation project and includes data collected by the state. The project tests the feasibility of using required homeless data to construct control groups, to position us to apply for state/federal funding for future work.
Timothy J. Hickey, Computer Science; Robert Sekuler, Psychology/Neuroscience
“Engaged learning and research with interactive video games”
The project refines, deploys and tests a video game designed to serve four objectives: (i) to assess learning and decision making under time pressure; (ii) to gauge individual differences in capacity to control effects of potential distractions; (iii) to use electroencephalographic (EEG) signals to identify brain states related to players’ performance; and (iv) to identify video game features which optimize players’ learning, engagement and enjoyment.
Michael Marr, Biology/Molecular; Cell Biology
“Single cell analysis of stress inducible transcription”
Transition metal homeostasis is an important aspect of cellular function. The cell must maintain the concentration of essential metals in a window that supports efficient metabolic function but must also protect against the damaging effects of high concentrations of these metals. In addition, non-essential transition metals such as cadmium, that play no metabolic role, must be kept in check to prevent cellular toxicity. An important component of this regulation occurs at the level of transcription of the metallothionein (MT) genes. Therefore, a detailed understanding of the mechanisms of this control is an important goal. One way a cell regulates metal homeostasis is by tightly and specifically regulating expression of genes involved in metal mobilization and storage such as the MTs. The long-term objective of our studies is to understand how a cell, in response to diverse metals, differentially regulates the appropriate metal responsive genes to control metal homeostasis.
So what does an academic with a PhD in biochemistry, expertise in gene-based expression microarrays, and a multimillion dollar lab at Stanford University do for a next act in his career? — He builds a better burger.
In 2011, Patrick Brown started Impossible Foods with the goal of creating a vegetarian burger that could tickle the taste buds of even the most die-hard carnivore. This summer, the Impossible Burger, as it's known, debuted to rave reviews and around-the-block lines at Momofuku Nishi, a trendy restaurant in Manhattan's Chelsea neighborhood.
Brown came to Brandeis last Tuesday to speak with students and later sat down for an interview with Brandeis Now. He was invited to the university by Professor of Biology Michael Rosbash.
Brown was at the apex of his academic career when he decided to start Impossible Foods. "I felt like I had the best job in the world" at Stanford, he says. "My responsibility was to follow my curiosity and see wherever it took me. If they weren't paying me, I would have been paying them to let me do it."
But he says he also wanted to leave a better world for his kids and grandkids. Since, as he puts it, animal agriculture "is by far the most destructive technology in terms of its environmental impact," he focused on food.
Producing one pound of beef, for instance, requires 1,800 gallons of water, the equivalent of more than 100 10-minute showers. Livestock agriculture is responsible for 14 percent of all greenhouse emissions globally, most of which come from cattle.
Brown took a novel approach to creating a beef substitute. "I approached it as a basic scientist would," he says. "I started by trying to understand basic things about why meat tastes like meat — What is the biochemical explanation as to why it has the physical and textural properties it has? What's the molecular basis of the chemistry of the flavor?"
Several years of research led Brown and his staff to heme, the iron-containing molecule that's responsible for the color and much of the taste and smell of meat. Heme is super-abundant in meat, but it’s also a basic building block of all forms of life, including plants. That meant it could be extracted to create a vegetarian burger that tasted like meat.
"There were zero scientific publications on heme’s role in meat flavor," Brown says. "Nobody paid any attention to it. They were not trying to understand meat in fundamental terms."
Other ingredients in the Impossible Burger include water, textured wheat protein, coconut oil and a potato protein. There's no cholesterol, hormones, antibiotics or artificial ingredients.
Impossible Foods has set its immediate goal on selling to restaurants. In two or three years, Brown expects to produce his company's animal-free beef at the same price as ordinary supermarket ground beef. According to the company, making an impossible burger uses only 1/20th the land and a quarter of the water required to produce a meat burger and produces only an eighth of the greenhouse gas emissions.
According to press reports, the Silicon Valley-based startup has raised $182 million in equity since launching.
Brandeis Associate Professor of Philosophy Berislav Marusic has been awarded the 2016 Sanders book prize for his book “Evidence and Agency: Norms of Belief for Promising and Resolving.”
In the book, Marusic explores how we, as agents, should weigh evidence when assessing future actions.
The Sanders Book Prize, which is presented by the American Philosophical Association, carries a $7,000 award and is and given to the author of the best book in philosophy of mind, metaphysics, or epistemology. The winning book must have also been published in English in the last five years.
Brandeis University’s All-Campus Barbecue on Thursday, Aug. 10 yielded just one full bag of trash though more than 700 staff and faculty members partook in the annual celebration.
The remaining food scraps were composted, marking the first all-campus event to ever feature composting.
The effort came as part of Brandeis’ renewed commitment to waste diversion. Brandeis tripled its composting rates in the dining halls last semester. In 2016 so far, dining halls have collected 49 tons of food waste for compost, up from 27 tons in 2015.
Kitchen staff compost food scraps like meat, dairy and bones, as well as preparation leftovers including stems and peels.
“Our leftover food contains nutrients that are good for the soil.” said Brandeis sustainability manager Mary Fischer. “So, composting makes the best use of our food waste, and exemplifies our commitment to managing our waste in the best way possible,”
Thanks to new signage, strategy and training of staff, Brandeis also re-launched its campus recycling program last year.
Those efforts resulted in campus reaching a 26% recycling rate in 2016, an all-time high that demonstrates significant improvement from the 2015 rate of 18%.
The short-term goal for recycling on campus is 40%, the national average for universities.